When it comes to caring for our plant companions, pruning is one of the most technical and at the same time most unknown points by a large number of plant lovers and fans. However, a good pruning is essential in the cultivation of many species, and at the same time a bad pruning is a great risk factor for the health of the plant.
If you want to learn what types of pruning exist and how they should be done, join us in this EcologíaVerde article.
The basics of pruning
Before starting with the different types of pruning, it is necessary to mention some basic things about pruning and that is that it is a process with the power not only of restore and maintain plant healthsomething purely technical, but also with the ability to model what will be the final appearance of the same, being able to give rise to sizes and forms totally different from those that the plant would adopt naturally.
Nevertheless, pruning also has the potential to do a lot of damage to the planteither because it is done at the wrong time and costs the plant a large amount of energy, or because poorly made cuts leave wounds and open pathways for the attack of pests and diseases.
Therefore, the first vital point with pruning is the tools that are going to be used. Whether you use scissors or a pruning knife or a pair of pliers or a saw, whether it is large trees or shrubs, tools must be so sharp as possible and must be sterilized both before and after pruning each plant. This is very important because a dull tool will not make clean cuts, which will leave wounds that are much more difficult to heal and will leave the plant exposed to attacks for a longer time. Sterilization, on the other hand, is absolutely necessary because it prevents us from unknowingly spreading diseases between different plants, as well as from infecting the plant with pathogenic elements accumulated in the phylum. Make sure to always sterilize your tools with specific products for it, both before and after treating each of the different plants.
In addition, when stems or branches of a certain size are cut, it is also important that, if the cut is made on a stem or branch that is vertical or of a certain verticality, it is done not straight, but at an angle of about 45º. In this way, we do not leave a flat surface on which moisture from rainwater or irrigation can accumulate, nor favor the deposit of pests or diseases in the area. In this other article you can learn about the different Pests and diseases of plants: lists and how to eliminate them.
This is the pruning practiced on young trees or shrubs so that they grow in a form that suits our wants or needs. It can be a topiary work to give a shrub a certain ornamental shape, or to get a garden tree to take shape to get a wide and leafy crown that gives a pleasant shade.
This is especially important in fruit farmsin which it is very important that the branches of the tree have a way in which it is easy to access the fruits when they appear to collect them.
It is important to be clear about what shape you want to give the plant from the beginning, since these prunings are carried out over several years and in phases, in order to achieve the desired effects practically from the first years of life of the tree or bush.
A clamp is nothing more than a cut made on tender branches, removing the latter between 5 and 10 cm. Thus, the plant is able to develop new side brancheswhich will lead to a more foliage instead of very pronounced growth on a few fronts.
Here it is very important to know the plant well, because some hardly tolerate pinching while other species are very resistant to them and accept them without problems.
This pruning must be carried out on all species, either continuously or once a year. It simply consists of remove leaves, branches and stems in poor condition of the plant, to prevent it from wasting energy and resources on feeding parts whose growth is not worth it or will not go well at all.
For maximize the fruit yield of a fruit tree, it is necessary to apply a pruning, different in each case, intended for the fruits to be of the highest quality and number possible. Since the universal rule is used that a fruit needs 40 mature leaves to grow well, flower buds and wood buds are balanced to reach the desired point.
Here you can read more about How and when to prune fruit trees and How to graft fruit trees.
When a plant has aged a lot, either because of its age or because it has not received good care, you can practice a drastic pruning to remove the old branches and those that have grown getting in the way of others, hoping that this will regain vitality and sprout again with renewed energy.
Flowering pruning is done in plants of great ornamental value for their flowerslooking for the plant to give flowers of great volume and in great quantity, similar to how it is done with fruiting pruning. Each species here is different and has different times and techniques, which must be adapted to the rhythms and needs of the plant.
Here you can learn about ornamental plants: what they are, types, names and images and here you can discover some species of plants with orange flowers and others with red flowers.
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