All fans of gardening and horticulture are familiar to a greater or lesser extent with the term substrate. Substrates are a vital element when growing any type of plant and, although there are universal substrates that tend to work well with most plants, there are a large number of types of substrates in gardening. Substrate mixtures have very different properties and are more suitable for different plants, so it is worth studying them in more depth to have much more success with our crops, whether they are orchards or ornamental plants.
If you want to learn more about how substrates are classified and what are the types of substrates most used, keep reading us in this EcologíaVerde article.
What is the substrate for plants
When we talk about plant substrateswe refer to the land we use to grow themeither in a pot or on the ground, when we prepare and provide the mixture ourselves.
The substrate will almost always have properties that are very different from those of the natural soil, and it is always prepared seeking to provide the crop with an optimal medium for growth and development, taking care of aspects such as water and humidity retention, the amount of organic matter present, the degree of compaction or pH level.
Types of substrates according to their properties
When we talk about substrates according to their properties, we divide them into chemically inert and chemically active.
- The chemically inert substrates they are substrates that simply support the plant, not intervening at all in the supply or fixation of nutrients. When these substrates are used, the nutrients must be supplied separately.
- The chemically active substrates they also act as a support but also provide nutrients or retain them, storing the excess and releasing it when the plant needs it.
Types of substrates according to materials
If we look at the origin of the materials that compose them, we differentiate organic substrates of mineral or inorganic substrates.
- There are many types of organic substrateswhich are those of natural origin such as peat, those of synthesis such as expanded polystyrene and the by-products or residues that, once composted, are valid for use, such as sawdust, pruning remains, water purification sludge , etc.
- There are also different types of inorganic substratesdepending on whether they are of natural origin such as sand and gravel, processed such as perlite and expanded clay, or, again, waste such as blast furnace slag.
Types of natural substrates
These are some of the most used natural substrates:
The substrate for hydroponics It is, on many occasions, simple water. All plants need water to survive, but in the right facilities it can also be used as a substrate. In this other post you can learn how to make a homemade hydroponic crop.
The sands have a medium water retention capacity and compact over time, although they are highly durable. Due to their ideal granulometry, between 0.5 and 2mm, they are commonly mixed with peat to prepare potting soil.
The gravels have a diameter between 5 mm and 15 mm. The most used gravels as a substrate for plants are pumice and quartz. The substrate made with pumice or pumice stone is also known as tepojal. Here we tell you more about what tepojal is for plants, what it is for and how it is used.
When untreated volcanic material is used, we find porous substrates with a slightly acidic pH, which provides great aeration and low water retention. They are difficult to work with due to their heterogeneity.
Product of natural plant decomposition over a long time, peat is classified into black and blonde. The latter are richer in organic matter and have better aeration and water retention capacity, which is why the two are often mixed.
In this other guide you can learn about what peat is, its types and how to use it.
Coming mostly from the wood industry, it is a substrate that is used raw or composted, the latter being preferable. The pine bark substrate is light, with great porosity and aeration, tending towards a slight acidity.
Coconut fiber is one of the substrates for seedlings most used, especially when combined with peat and organic matter is added. It is very light and must be washed of salts before use. Here we tell you more about the Properties of coconut fiber for plants and how to make it.
Types of artificial substrates
The most used artificial substrates are the following:
Volcanic siliceous rock subjected to temperatures of between 1,000 and 1,200 ºC, perlite is a low-density substrate, with an enormous water retention capacity. It is of limited durability and neutral pH, and tends to be mixed with other substrates such as peat to improve its properties.
In this link you will see more information about what perlite is for plants, what it is for and how it is used.
It is obtained by melting basaltic and calcareous rocks and coke coal at a temperature of more than 1,600 ºC. A homogeneous, inert and easy to handle material is obtained, which provides good aeration and water retention, but its durability is even more limited than perlite: it lasts around 3 years.
Similar to perlite, vermiculite is finer grained and is obtained by exfoliating micas at over 800ºC. It has a great capacity for aeration and water retention, but it tends to compact over time.
Here you can see more about what vermiculite is, its uses and how to make it.
When clay-type nodules are treated above 100 ºC, we obtain these balls between 2 mm and 10 mm in diameter, with a hard exterior and great aeration capacity. It retains little water and tends to mix with peat to improve the drainage of the substrate.
It is a plastic cut into lumps between 4 mm and 12 mm and white. It has an extraordinarily low density and provides very good aeration as well as low water retention capacity. It is added to compact substrates such as peat to improve its aeration.
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