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Plant pests and diseases: lists and how to eliminate them

Plant pests and diseases: lists and how to eliminate them

Plants are subject to the threat of a large number of agents that can attack them, most of which are pests or diseases. These dangers are usually considered only when they affect crops or farms due to the significant economic losses that they can lead to, but almost all plants are susceptible to being attacked.

In this EcologíaVerde article we are going to lists of plant pests and diseases most common, as well as giving some guidelines on how to eliminate and prevent them. The most expert in gardening will recognize some of the names, but it is worth knowing as much as possible about the dangers that our plants can face.

Most common plant pests

Pests are caused by animals, usually insects, that feed on the plant or harm it in some way. They are not all, but the following are the most common plant pests:

  • aphid: they are very small insects, similar to grains of rice. The most common are green aphidsbut there are more species, such as black, red, white, or yellow aphids. They feed on plants by sucking their sap and can attack almost any plant. They excrete a molasses that attracts ants, with which they maintain a symbiotic relationship, and which can also cause a fungus called Negrilla to appear. Learn in this other EcologíaVerde article the best home remedies to eliminate aphids from plants.
  • Woodlouse: These other insects, shaped like small shells, also feed on plant sap. They are usually located on the stems and the undersides of the leaves, and also excrete the excess sugar they obtain from the sap in the form of wax. There are various types of mealybugs on plantssuch as the cottony mealybug and the ribbed mealybug.
  • Red spider: small red or black mites, which also suck the plant’s juices, weakening it and making it vulnerable to other attacks from other pests or diseases, so if the plants are not treated in time they end up dying. They occur with high temperatures and when humidity is very low. When there are many of these spiders, they can produce visible webs.
  • weevils: This is another of the insect pests that feed on plants. They are also known as weevils or curculionids and there are many different species, such as the rice, wheat or corn weevil. Here we explain how to eliminate weevils.
  • thrips: they are small winged insects They feed on the leaves and sometimes the fruits. They usually appear in spring, when most plants are in better health, with more leaves and fruits.
  • White fly: also known as aleurodidae, make up a large group of more than 1,500 species. They are one of the pests that cause the most damage to plants and crops.
  • leaf miners: these are the larvae of various species of insects that develop inside the plants, especially in the part of the leaves. By feeding on these, they cause serious damage to plants and these can even die. They leave very characteristic marks on the leaves, which are like white paths.

Now that we have seen this type of plant pest, we are going to focus on the diseases that they can suffer from.

Plant pests and diseases: lists and how to eliminate them - Most common plant pests
Plant pests and diseases: lists and how to eliminate them -

Most common plant diseases

As with pests, there are endless diseases that affect plants of all kinds and all over the world. The most common are the following:

  • botrytis: also called gray rotis caused by a fungus (Botrytis cinerea) that produces a grayish mold on any part of the plant. It is usually due to excess moisture.
  • Rust: This fungus causes small yellowish or brown spots and deformities to appear on stems and leaves. Check here how to combat rust.
  • Mildew: it is a fungus that appears in conditions of high humidity and temperature. Mildew attacks the leaves of plants, causing dark spots with an oily appearance. Do not hesitate to consult this EcologíaVerde article on How to combat mildew.
  • powdery mildew: it is very easy to identify by its appearance of light-colored powder on the leaves, similar to ash. Powdery mildew is a disease caused by a fungus, and therefore must be treated with fungicides.
  • anthracnose: it is a disease caused by fungi which is also known as chancre or canker. It produces brown spots on the leaves, especially around the main nerves of these. Learn here everything about Anthracnose: what it is and treatment.
  • Alternariosis: this fungal disease, also called nigga, affects the leaves and fruits of plants. It is recognized because it produces darker circular spots in the center and with circles or rings around a lighter brown or yellow tone.
Plant pests and diseases: lists and how to eliminate them - Most common plant diseases

Natural treatments for plant pests and diseases

There are many ecological and natural substances that you can use to combat plant pests and diseases without the need to resort to chemicals.

  • Garlic: A solution of crushed garlic with cloves in steamed water on the plants will keep many pests away.
  • tomato leaves: they are a great repellent against aphids and worms, so spraying a solution of chopped leaves in water will work, but be careful with your pets, this mixture can be toxic to them.
  • ground eggshells: In addition to fertilizing the soil, they also repel snails and slugs. In this other link you can learn more about how to eliminate slugs and snails naturally.
  • Cilantro: Boiled in water at a high concentration will kill most mites on plants.
  • vegetable oil: against mealybugs and aphids, on the other hand, vegetable oil is the best option, mixed with water and liquid soap.
  • Sodium bicarbonate: a tablespoon of this ingredient mixed with two liters of sprayed water once a day will be a great ally.

Now that we have seen the types of pests in plants and how to eliminate them, we want to recommend these two other posts on the most effective homemade fungicides and on How to make natural insecticides for plants, in this way you can treat fungal diseases and a wide variety of insects that they become pests.

How to prevent plant pests and diseases naturally

Many of the remedies we have given, such as eggshells and garlic, can be used preventively against a wide variety of pests, since they do not harm the soil and even enrich it.

Against fungi, on the other hand, the best preventive measure is always do not overdo the risks. An excess of humidity will provide them with an ideal environment in which to appear. Also, if you keep your pruned plants so that the air runs well between them and separated from each other, you will also make it very difficult for fungi to appear.

To expand the information on both treatments and the prevention of these problems in plants, we recommend this other post on How to combat pests in organic farming. Also, to avoid problems with pests and diseases in plants in orchards, gardens, terraces or pots we also recommend knowing what biological pest control is.

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