Ferns are perennial plants, they come from somewhat humid tropical and equatorial areas, but also from some regions with a Mediterranean climate. For a good development, they should be protected from sunlight, but the shade is not good for them either. They are vegetables that are characterized by having narrow leaves, an underground stem and a curious reproduction through receptacles that allow the multiplication of the species. The stem of these plants lasts only twelve months, but it maintains underground parts from which new stems sprout again the following year, and they can also be grown both indoors and outdoors.
Plants without flowers or seeds
There are different varieties, which come from forests either scrubs from rainy areas with poor soils in tropical and equatorial regions. For optimum cultivation, they should be hidden from the intense sun and kept at an environmental temperature between 12°C and 18°C. On the other hand, the substrate must have a moderate degree of humidity, so it requires a high capacity to store water, for example, a base of mulch, peat with loose and porous soil can be used.
Irrigation preferences are not many, because if the compost is abundant it can become saturated, the fronds turn brown and the plant dies. It recommendable is to spray its leaves a couple of times a day, especially if the weather is hot. One of the most common pests are mealybugs, they are small insects that attack plants deforming their structure and leaving it sticky. Another enemy of the fern is the foliar nematode that is easily located because the plant turns reddish brown.
Certain bacteria they can attack the floors plus youths. Some viruses cause significant leaf deformation. While other enemies can cause necrotic foliar spots in the form of rings. Among the most advisable ferns both for our garden and for the interior of our home are the following species: Deer tongue (Phyllintis scolopendrium), elk horn (Platycerium bifurcatum), blechno (Blechnum gibbum), Maidenhair (Adiantum capillus) and Bird’s Nest (asplenium nests).
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