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Cultivation and care of ferns

Cultivation and care of ferns

Ferns are a very beautiful plant when it comes to decorating the interior of an apartment. In addition, ferns are plants that give a great freshness to the environment, however it is a family of plants that is not easy to maintain, because they have some physical characteristics that make them very different from plants with seeds, since ferns they do not have. In this EcologíaVerde article, we give you some tips on growing and caring for ferns.

Fern Characteristics

Unlike other plants, Ferns are perennial seedless plants. (Pteridophytes), with large leaves (like giant feathers) and are natural inhabitants of the undergrowth. Since they have neither seeds nor flowers, they reproduce by spores or by the seedlings that grow on its rhizomes. They are very dependent on humidity for their reproduction, since their spores need high humidity, which is why they grow where environmental conditions are humid.

Most ferns do not exceed 2 meters in height, however tree ferns (genus cyathea) can reach 15 meters. Epiphytic ferns can grow on the trunks or branches of a tree. Other ferns are terrestrial and develop in moist areas and on humus mulch. Some genres like Davallia, Asplenium either Athyrium they are more easy to grow.

If you want to learn more about the curiosities and characteristics of these plants, we recommend you read this other EcologíaVerde article on Ferns are plants without flowers or seeds.

Cultivation and care of ferns - Characteristics of ferns

Fern cultivation and care

It is recommended that the cultivation of the fern is carried out in autumn or spring and prepare the ground for it. The substrate must be well aerated and of medium consistency, for example, made up of heather soil and a little sand. You can also have a good leaf mulch or rich compost from shredded branches. Ultimately, a light substrate and good drainage. Microorganisms and mycorrhizal fungi can also be added to the soil, to mimic the conditions of their natural substrate.

Here you can find specific information on the care of the elkhorn fern.

Cultivation and care of ferns - Cultivation and care of ferns

Proper Location and Humidity for Ferns

As we said before, ferns need shade and always indirect light. The ideal is to place the plant a little away from a window facing north, because they receive less light, or towards the south.

Ferns are plants that need high humidity levels in the air and in the environment. We can achieve good humidity with methods such as placing the plant in double pots or putting a humidifier nearby.

For use a double pot, the second should be larger than the pot where the fern is planted. This should be filled with moss and water and placed on top of the other pot. The top of the pot in which it is planted should be covered with soil and moss. A few days after planting, it can be watered to ensure that it is moist.

temperature for ferns

The temperature at which the ferns are kept should be approximately 20ºC, being able to drop below 15 ºC, although they do not grow well. This is so because the majority of ferns grown at home are from tropical climate. Placing ferns in bathrooms can be a solution, since the temperature and humidity are generally higher due to showers and bathtubs. So if you have space in this area of ​​the home, we recommend placing it there.

Of course, it is not advisable to place them near heating or air conditioning, even if it is an area where you can better control the temperature since these systems dry out the environment too much.

Cultivation and care of ferns - Temperature for ferns

How to water and fertilize ferns

It is convenient water the fern potting soil, a little every day, but always avoiding that it fills completely with water. The ideal is also spray the fern with water with the help of a diffuser or spray, and if possible reuse rainwater for irrigation and spraying. Solutions such as denatured alcohol can also be used, which in turn helps in the fight against pests.

With regard to fertilizers and fertilizers, they can start to be applied after six months. Your application will be monthly and must be a specific fertilizer for ferns.

Cultivation and care of ferns - How to water and fertilize ferns

Pruning and transplanting ferns

Ferns also suffer from certain diseases, although they are usually resistant and do not die, although it is convenient prune or snippreviously sharpened and disinfected, the diseased or damaged parts of the fern. If the contagion is to the entire plant, it should be removed so that it does not spread the disease to other ferns. In addition, when there are dry or very old parts, it is convenient to prune them as well, which can happen at any time of the year.

At the time that the growth of ferns, exceed the size of the plant, it is advisable to transfer them to another pot. The time that is necessary to wait to transfer them depends on each species and also on the state of health of the specimen. So, you have to transplant a fern when we see that the space of the pot is too small or when we see that there are problems with the soil or drainage.

Here is a video about it fern care guide.

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